By Peter H. Wilson
This significant other includes 31 essays via major foreign students to supply an summary of the foremost debates on eighteenth-century Europe.
- Examines the social, highbrow, fiscal, cultural, and political adjustments that came about all through eighteenth-century Europe
- Focuses on Europe whereas putting it inside of its foreign context
- Considers not only significant western ecu states, but additionally the customarily overlooked nations of japanese and northerly Europe
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The combination of cool conditions with high precipitation encouraged ice cap accumulation and glacier advance. , 1756). Starvation was not uncommon and crime rates increased as families found themselves unable to meet their needs from the meager products of their agricultural activities. The economy was based on livestock and winter stall feeding, and the succession of poor and wet summers that marked the period led to the loss of livestock either by enforced slaughter or starvation as fodder supplies failed to meet the winter needs calculated (in modern day needs) as 3 cubic feet of fodder per sheep, 10 to 15 cubic meters per horse, and 35 to 40 cubic meters per cow.
The problems of Scotland’s climate were intensiﬁed by oceanic as well as atmospheric changes. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the southward extension of cold Arctic water to replace the warmer waters of tropical origin – the so-called North Atlantic Drift – more commonly associated with the seas around the north of the British Isles. The purely climatic consequence of this shift was to rob the region of much of the warmth otherwise derived from the Atlantic waters, with the result that the temperature contrast between southern England and Scotland was increased.
In the German states and Austria the price of cereals rose by 111 percent, raising the specter of famine, disease, and mortality. In Bohemia the cost of rye rose by a factor of 3 between 1769 and 1771, and of oats and barley by a factor of 4. This led to severe social dislocation as unemployment, begging, and crime all increased. Pﬁster and Brázdil (2006) estimate that Bohemia’s population fell by 250,000 (10 percent of the total) and that it took 13 years for a full demographic recovery, forming a bleak a backdrop to the serf uprising of 1775.