By Noel Weeks
The prevalence of treaties during the old close to East has been investigated on a couple of events, regularly with a purpose to get to the bottom of yes questions coming up within the biblical box. due to that attention, the lifestyles of the same establishment in a couple of diverse cultures has now not been taken care of as an issue in itself. more often than not the life of treaties in the course of the zone has been taken with no consideration, or an easy borrowing version has been used to provide an explanation for how comparable varieties got here for use in several cultures. Why kinds have been comparable around the zone has now not been probed. This paintings investigates treaty occurrences in several cultures and reveals that the varieties used correlate with methods of protecting political regulate either internally and over vassals. similar strategies are projected in legit bills of historical past. therefore you'll approximately distinguish threats in response to energy from persuasion in line with benevolence and historic precedent, even though quite a few mixtures of those ensue. there's a most likely extra connection of the ability selected to the measure of centralisation of strength in the society. Underlying the neighborhood traditions is a standard culture which should be dated to the pre-literate interval. Biblical covenants healthy inside this trend. The cultures taken care of are Mesopotamia, the Hittites, Egypt, Syrian centres and Israel.
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Additional resources for Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships
There is no attempt to lay out more globally the relations between the parties. The second model that we possess seems to use few gods. An example of this is the sworn agreement between Hammurabi and Zimri-Lim. Several gods of oath occur but not the state gods, and curses do not occur. Yet there is an uncertainty created by the evidence that treaties were concluded in various stages. What stage of the process, if there were multiple stages in this particular case, does the extant material represent?
232. 123. Borger, Die Inschriften Asarhaddons, p. 106, 11. 32 34; Luckenbill, Ancient Records, Vol. II, p. 236. 42 Admonition and Curse Nineveh into my presence in order to prevent the violation of the border of their land. '124 Along with the greater interest in treaties we find mention of the enemy making a treaty among themselves: 'They pronounced the oath of the great gods among themselves. They trusted in their own strength. '125 This context gives an interesting sidelight on Assyrian attitudes to oaths sworn by foreign gods.
Zwei prophetische Texte', Bi. Or. 28(1971), pp. 3-24 (11), Col. Ill, 19'. 71. J. Lewis, 'The Identity and Function of El/Baal Berith' JBL 115(1996), pp. D. Sperling, 'An Arslan Tash Incantation: Interpretations and Implications', HUCA 53(1982), pp. D. Sperling, 'Israel's Religion in the Ancient Near East' in A. ), Jewish Spirituality. From the Bible through the Middle Ages (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986), p. 25. 72. Lewis (The Identity and Function of El/Baal Berith', p. 406) concedes on the basis of CADS p.